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  • Location:

    Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia

    Geographic coordinates:

    20 00 S, 30 00 E

    Map references:



    total: 390,757 sq km

    land: 386,847 sq km

    water: 3,910 sq km

    country comparison to the world:  61

    Area - comparative:

    slightly larger than Montana

    Land boundaries:

    total: 3,229 km

    border countries (4): Botswana 834 km, Mozambique 1,402 km, South Africa 230 km, Zambia 763 km


    0 km (landlocked)

    Maritime claims:

    none (landlocked)


    tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)


    mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east

    Elevation extremes:

    lowest point: junction of the Runde and Save Rivers 162 m

    highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m

    Natural resources:

    coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals

    Land use:

    agricultural land: 42.5%

    arable land 10.9%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 31.3%

    forest: 39.5%

    other: 18% (2011 est.)

    Irrigated land:

    1,735 sq km (2003)

    Total renewable water resources:

    20 cu km (2011)

    Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

    total: 4.21 cu km/yr (14%/7%/79%)

    per capita: 333.5 cu m/yr (2002)

    Natural hazards:

    recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare

    Environment - current issues:

    deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching; poor mining practices have led to toxic waste and heavy metal pollution

    Environment - international agreements:

    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

    Geography - note:

    landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zambia; in full flood (February-April) the massive Victoria Falls on the river forms the world's largest curtain of falling water; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)

706 S. Main St. Boerne, Texas 78006


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