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  • POPULATION. 14,030,368 (July 2018 est.)

  • note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

  • country comparison to the world: 73

  • Nationality:This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective.

  • noun: Zimbabwean(s)

  • adjective: Zimbabwean

  • Ethnic groups:This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population.

  • African 99.4% (predominantly Shona; Ndebele is the second largest ethnic group), other 0.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2012 est.)

  • Languages:This entry provides a listing of languages spoken in each country and specifies any that are official national or regional languages. When data is available, the languages spoken in each country are broken down according to the percent of the total population speaking each language as a first language. For those countries without available data, languages are listed in rank order based on prevalence, starting with the most-spoken language.

  • Shona (official; most widely spoken), Ndebele (official, second most widely spoken), English (official; traditionally used for official business), 13 minority languages (official; includes Chewa, Chibarwe, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Shangani, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa)

  • Religions:This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population. The core characteristics and beliefs of the world's major religions are described below. Baha'i - Founded by Mirza Husayn-Ali (known as Baha'u'llah) in Iran in 1852, Baha'i faith emphasizes monotheism and believes in one eternal transcendent God. Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace m . . . more

  • Protestant 74.8% (includes Apostolic 37.5%, Pentecostal 21.8%, other 15.5%), Roman Catholic 7.3%, other Christian 5.3%, traditional 1.5%, Muslim 0.5%, other 0.1%, none 10.5% (2015 est.)

  • Demographic profile:This entry describes a country’s key demographic features and trends and how they vary among regional, ethnic, and socioeconomic sub-populations. Some of the topics addressed are population age structure, fertility, health, mortality, poverty, education, and migration.

  • Zimbabwe’s progress in reproductive, maternal, and child health has stagnated in recent years. According to a 2010 Demographic and Health Survey, contraceptive use, the number of births attended by skilled practitioners, and child mortality have either stalled or somewhat deteriorated since the mid-2000s. Zimbabwe’s total fertility rate has remained fairly stable at about 4 children per woman for the last two decades, although an uptick in the urban birth rate in recent years has caused a slight rise in the country’s overall fertility rate. Zimbabwe’s HIV prevalence rate dropped from approximately 29% to 15% since 1997 but remains among the world’s highest and continues to suppress the country’s life expectancy rate. The proliferation of HIV/AIDS information and prevention programs and personal experience with those suffering or dying from the disease have helped to change sexual behavior and reduce the epidemic.

  • Historically, the vast majority of Zimbabwe’s migration has been internal – a rural-urban flow. In terms of international migration, over the last 40 years Zimbabwe has gradually shifted from being a destination country to one of emigration and, to a lesser degree, one of transit (for East African illegal migrants traveling to South Africa). As a British colony, Zimbabwe attracted significant numbers of permanent immigrants from the UK and other European countries, as well as temporary economic migrants from Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia. Although Zimbabweans have migrated to South Africa since the beginning of the 20th century to work as miners, the first major exodus from the country occurred in the years before and after independence in 1980. The outward migration was politically and racially influenced; a large share of the white population of European origin chose to leave rather than live under a new black-majority government.

  • In the 1990s and 2000s, economic mismanagement and hyperinflation sparked a second, more diverse wave of emigration. This massive out migration – primarily to other southern African countries, the UK, and the US – has created a variety of challenges, including brain drain, illegal migration, and human smuggling and trafficking. Several factors have pushed highly skilled workers to go abroad, including unemployment, lower wages, a lack of resources, and few opportunities for career growth.

  • Age structure:This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group as follows: 0-14 years (children), 15-24 years (early working age), 25-54 years (prime working age), 55-64 years (mature working age), 65 years and over (elderly). The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while countries with older population . . . more

  • 0-14 years: 38.62% (male 2,681,192 /female 2,736,876)

  • 15-24 years: 20.42% (male 1,403,715 /female 1,461,168)

  • 25-54 years: 32.22% (male 2,286,915 /female 2,234,158)

  • 55-64 years: 4.24% (male 233,021 /female 361,759)

  • 65 years and over: 4.5% (male 255,704 /female 375,860) (2018 est.)

  • population pyramid: 

  • Dependency ratios:Dependency ratios are a measure of the age structure of a population. They relate the number of individuals that are likely to be economically "dependent" on the support of others. Dependency ratios contrast the ratio of youths (ages 0-14) and the elderly (ages 65+) to the number of those in the working-age group (ages 15-64). Changes in the dependency ratio provide an indication of potential social support requirements resulting from changes in population age structures. As fertility leve . . . more

  • total dependency ratio: 79.5 (2015 est.)

  • youth dependency ratio: 74.4 (2015 est.)

  • elderly dependency ratio: 5.1 (2015 est.)

  • potential support ratio: 19.7 (2015 est.)

  • Median age:This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Niger and Uganda to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan. See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a high . . . more

  • total: 20.2 years 

  • male: 19.9 years 

  • female: 20.4 years (2018 est.)

  • country comparison to the world: 190

  • Population growth rate:The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources (e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. Rapid population growth can be seen as . . . more

  • 1.68% (2018 est.)

  • country comparison to the world: 60

  • Birth rate:This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population.

  • 34 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)

  • country comparison to the world: 25

  • Death rate:This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining . . . more

  • 9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)

  • country comparison to the world: 41

  • Net migration rate:This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g., 3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population chan . . . more

  • -7.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)

  • country comparison to the world: 208

  • Population distribution:This entry provides a summary description of the population dispersion within a country. While it may suggest population density, it does not provide density figures.

  • Aside from major urban agglomerations in Harare and Bulawayo, population distribution is fairly even, with slightly greater overall numbers in the eastern half

  • Urbanization:This entry provides two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country. The second, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time. Additionally, the World entry includes a list of the ten largest urban agglomerations. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising th . . . more

  • urban population: 32.2% of total population (2018)

  • rate of urbanization: 2.19% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

  • Major urban areas - population:This entry provides the population of the capital and up to six major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at least 750,000 people. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city. For smaller countries, lacking urban centers of 750,000 or more, only the population of the capital is presented.

  • 1.515 million HARARE (capital) (2018)

  • Sex ratio:This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and fertilit . . . more

  • at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female 

  • 0-14 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 

  • 15-24 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 

  • 25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 

  • 55-64 years: 0.64 male(s)/female 

  • 65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female 

  • total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

  • Mother's mean age at first birth:This entry provides the mean (average) age of mothers at the birth of their first child. It is a useful indicator for gauging the success of family planning programs aiming to reduce maternal mortality, increase contraceptive use – particularly among married and unmarried adolescents – delay age at first marriage, and improve the health of newborns.

  • 20 years (2015 est.)

  • note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

  • Maternal mortality rate:The maternal mortality rate (MMR) is the annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes). The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year.

  • 443 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

  • country comparison to the world: 24

  • Infant mortality rate:This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.

  • total: 31.9 deaths/1,000 live births 

  • male: 35.9 deaths/1,000 live births 

  • female: 27.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)

  • country comparison to the world: 57

  • Life expectancy at birth:This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.

  • total population: 61.1 years 

  • male: 59 years 

  • female: 63.2 years (2018 est.)

  • country comparison to the world: 205

  • Total fertility rate:This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate (TFR) is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replaceme . . . more

  • 3.97 children born/woman (2018 est.)

  • country comparison to the world: 33

  • Contraceptive prevalence rate:This field gives the percent of women of reproductive age (15-49) who are married or in union and are using, or whose sexual partner is using, a method of contraception according to the date of the most recent available data. The contraceptive prevalence rate is an indicator of health services, development, and women’s empowerment. It is also useful in understanding, past, present, and future fertility trends, especially in developing countries.

  • 66.8% (2015)

  • Health expenditures:This entry provides the total expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP. Health expenditures are broadly defined as activities performed either by institutions or individuals through the application of medical, paramedical, and/or nursing knowledge and technology, the primary purpose of which is to promote, restore, or maintain health.

  • 6.4% of GDP (2014)

  • country comparison to the world: 99

  • Physicians density:This entry gives the number of medical doctors (physicians), including generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1,000 of the population. Medical doctors are defined as doctors that study, diagnose, treat, and prevent illness, disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans through the application of modern medicine. They also plan, supervise, and evaluate care and treatment plans by other health care providers. The World Health Organization estimates that f . . . more

  • 0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

  • Hospital bed density:This entry provides the number of hospital beds per 1,000 people; it serves as a general measure of inpatient service availability. Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers. In most cases, beds for both acute and chronic care are included. Because the level of inpatient services required for individual countries depends on several factors - such as demographic issues and the burden of disease - there is . . . more

  • 1.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

  • Drinking water source:This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved drinking water sources available to segments of the population of a country. Improved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: piped water into dwelling, yard, or plot; public tap or standpipe; tubewell or borehole; protected dug well; protected spring; or rainwater collection. Unimproved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: unprotected dug well; unprotected spring; cart with small tank or . . . more

  • improved:urban: 97% of population

  • rural: 67.3% of population

  • total: 76.9% of population

  • unimproved:urban: 3% of population

  • rural: 32.7% of population

  • total: 23.1% of population (2015 est.)

  • Sanitation facility access:This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved sanitation facilities available to segments of the population of a country. Improved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: flush or pour-flush to a piped sewer system, septic tank or pit latrine; ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine; pit latrine with slab; or a composting toilet. Unimproved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: flush or pour-flush not piped to a sewer system, septic tank . . . more

  • improved:urban: 49.3% of population (2015 est.)

  • rural: 30.8% of population (2015 est.)

  • total: 36.8% of population (2015 est.)

  • unimproved:urban: 50.7% of population (2015 est.)

  • rural: 69.2% of population (2015 est.)

  • total: 63.2% of population (2015 est.)

  • HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:This entry gives an estimate of the percentage of adults (aged 15-49) living with HIV/AIDS. The adult prevalence rate is calculated by dividing the estimated number of adults living with HIV/AIDS at yearend by the total adult population at yearend.

  • 13.3% (2017 est.)

  • country comparison to the world: 5

  • HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:This entry gives an estimate of all people (adults and children) alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.

  • 1.3 million (2017 est.)

  • country comparison to the world: 8

  • HIV/AIDS - deaths:This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year.

  • 22,000 (2017 est.)

  • country comparison to the world: 11

  • Major infectious diseases:This entry lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be very high as compared to the United States. These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of less than three years. The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases present. Th . . . more

  • degree of risk: high (2016)

  • food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)

  • vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)

  • water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)

  • animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)

  • Obesity - adult prevalence rate:This entry gives the percent of a country's population considered to be obese. Obesity is defined as an adult having a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater to or equal to 30.0. BMI is calculated by taking a person's weight in kg and dividing it by the person's squared height in meters.

  • 15.5% (2016)

  • country comparison to the world: 126

  • Children under the age of 5 years underweight:This entry gives the percent of children under five considered to be underweight. Underweight means weight-for-age is approximately 2 kg below for standard at age one, 3 kg below standard for ages two and three, and 4 kg below standard for ages four and five. This statistic is an indicator of the nutritional status of a community. Children who suffer from growth retardation as a result of poor diets and/or recurrent infections tend to have a greater risk of suffering illness and death.

  • 8.4% (2015)

  • country comparison to the world: 69

  • Education expenditures:This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP.

  • 7.5% of GDP (2014)

  • country comparison to the world: 10

  • Literacy:This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measu . . . more

  • definition: age 15 and over can read and write English (2015 est.)

  • total population: 86.5% 

  • male: 88.5% 

  • female: 84.6% (2015 est.)

  • School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):School life expectancy (SLE) is the total number of years of schooling (primary to tertiary) that a child can expect to receive, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that age. Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. For example, a year or grade completed in one country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content or qualit . . . more

  • total: 10 years 

  • male: 10 years 

  • female: 10 years (2013)

  • Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:This entry gives the percent of the total labor force ages 15-24 unemployed during a specified year.

  • total: 16.5% 

  • male: 11.7% 

  • female: 21.1% (2014 est.)

  • country comparison to the world: 82

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